New imaging technique allows researchers to see gene expression in brains of live mice in real time
A University of Minnesota Twin Cities-led team has developed a new technique that allows scientists and engineers to, for the first time, visualize mRNA molecules in the brains of living mice. The research reveals new insights into how memories are formed and stored in the brain and could provide scientists with new information about diseases such as Alzheimer’s.
The paper is published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS), a peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary, high-impact scientific journal.
There is still a lot of mystery surrounding the process of how memory is physically created and stored in the brain. It is well known that mRNA—a type of RNA involved in the creation of proteins—is produced during the process of forming and storing memories, but the technology for studying this process on the cellular level has been limited. Previous studies have often involved dissecting mice in order to examine their brains.
A team of researchers led by a University of Minnesota Twin Cities faculty member has developed a new technique that gives scientists a window into RNA synthesis in the brain of a mouse while it is still alive.
“We still know very little about memories in the brain,” explained Hye Yoon Park, an associate professor in the University of Minnesota Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and the study’s lead author. “It’s well known that mRNA synthesis is important for memory, but it was never possible to image this in a live brain. Our work is an important contribution to this field. We now have this new technology that neurobiologists can use for various different experiments and memory tests in the future.”
The University of Minnesota-led team’s process involved genetic engineering, two-photon excitation microscopy, and optimized image processing software. By genetically modifying a mouse so that it produced mRNA labeled with green fluorescent proteins (proteins derived from a jellyfish), the researchers were able to see when and where the mouse’s brain generated Arc mRNA, the specific type of molecule they were looking for.
Because the mouse is alive, the researchers could study it for longer periods of time. Using this new process, the researchers performed two experiments on the mouse in which they were able to see in real time over a month what the neurons—or nerve cells—were doing as the mouse was forming and storing memories.
Historically, neuroscientists have theorized that certain groups of neurons in the brain fire when a memory is formed, and that those same cells fire again when that moment or event is remembered. However, in both experiments, the researchers found that different groups of neurons fired each day they triggered the memory in the mouse.
Over the course of several days after the mouse created this memory, they were able to locate a small group of cells that overlapped, or consistently generated the Arc mRNA each day, in the retrosplenial cortex (RSC) region of the brain, a group which they believe is responsible for the long-term storage of that memory.
“Our research is about memory generation and retrieval,” Park said. “If we can understand how this happens, it will be very helpful for us in understanding Alzheimer’s disease and other memory-related diseases. Maybe people with Alzheimer’s disease still store the memories somewhere—they just can’t retrieve them. So in the very long-term, perhaps this research can help us overcome these diseases.”
This research was funded by the Samsung Science and Technology Foundation and the Wellcome Trust.
In addition to Park, the team included Seoul National University researchers Byung Hun Lee, Jae Youn Shim, Hyungseok Moon, and Dong Wook Kim; and Korea Institute of Science and Technology researchers Jiwon Kim, Jang Soo Yook, and Jinhyun Kim.
Why Men Need Professional Counseling – A Deep Dive Into the Benefits
Many men hesitate to seek professional help for their mental health because of social factors and stigma. Therapists are working to make therapy less intimidating for men.
Traditionally, society has put a lot of pressure on men to be tough and unemotional. This makes counseling unappealing because they think it will be seen as emasculating.
Knowing yourself more fully can be the key to building positive habits impacting your long-term life. It is also vital to improving your emotional health and resilience.
Self-awareness is the ability to perceive and evaluate one’s internal thoughts, emotions, and behaviors. This includes recognizing patterns and cognitive distortions holding you back in some regions of your life.
The more you develop your self-awareness, the better you will become at identifying and addressing these problems before they hinder your success.
This can be especially true in a relationship, where communication is at the core of any successful partnership. Without it, any relationship will fall apart quickly.
The best place to start is with a qualified therapist if you need professional help with your relationships. The benefits of professional counseling are numerous and can improve not only your mental health but also your physical well-being.
The best thing about professional counseling like Elevated Counseling Denver men’s therapy is that it can be done in a confidential and safe environment. While some men may be hesitant to open up about their feelings, they often find that visiting a therapist can help them move past difficult or uncomfortable situations and into better and healthier relationships.
There is no substitute for professional counseling for a man looking for the best possible relationship help. The benefits of this type of treatment include improved self-esteem, increased motivation, decreased stress and anxiety, and increased self-confidence.
Stress is a normal part of life, but if it lasts long, it can have serious health effects. Chronic stress promotes inflammation in the body, leading to heart disease, cancer and other illnesses.
Fortunately, many types of stress can be relieved quickly and easily. Simple mindfulness practices like meditation, yoga, tai chi and martial arts can help your body return to calm.
You can also reduce stress by making more time for yourself and nurturing yourself with healthy foods, exercise and sleep. In addition to helping you feel better, these activities can lower your blood pressure and increase energy levels.
Getting adequate sleep is crucial for health, energy and optimal performance. It can help you avoid chronic illnesses like obesity, diabetes and heart disease.
Research shows that men who get good quality sleep have a significantly higher life expectancy than those who don’t. A study published in The Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine found that men with all five favorable elements of low-risk sleep had a 4.7-year higher life expectancy than those who reported none or only one of the positive factors.
Studies have also shown that students who get consistent sleep earn higher grades than those who struggle to fall asleep or stay awake. Tim Bono, a lecturer in psychological and brain sciences at Washington University, found that college students with stable sleep patterns earned a GPA of 3.66 on average. In contrast, those with fluctuating sleep schedules earned a lower GPA.
The Top 5 Effects of Delta 8 THC on the Body
Delta 8 is a type of cannabinoid that is often used to treat pain and anxiety. This cannabinoid binds to CB1 receptors throughout the body, similar to CBD and delta-9 THC. However, it has a different position for its double bond, which makes it less psychoactive than the other two.
Aside from the apparent relaxation and pain relief, delta-8 THC has also reduced anxiety. This is because it binds to the CB1 receptors, which mediate stress and fear responses. Research shows that the endocannabinoid system regulates many functions, including mood, pain, learning and memory, digestion, and appetite. When a person experiences high anxiety or stress levels, the ECS can be overwhelmed and become dysfunctional. To study the effects of Delta 8 THC, researchers administered various tasks to participants while they smoked or vaped products containing the cannabinoid. They asked subjects to report how much they experienced the effects: the altered sense of time; anxiety; difficulty concentrating; short-term memory issues; euphoria; pain relief; and paranoia. While the research is still in its early stages, delta 8 THC can provide a more natural, less anxious psychoactive experience than Delta 9 THC. This may be beneficial for consumers looking to avoid psychoactive effects but want the potential benefits of cannabis. Its effects are known to be mellow and relaxing and can leave users feeling contented and chill.
If you’re in a pinch and need an energy boost, Delta 8 THC can be a good option. It can provide the same effects as caffeine without the harmful side effects or jitters that can come with using caffeine. You can find delta-8 THC products in many forms, including tinctures, vape pens, and gummies. They can also be sold at licensed cannabis retailers and health food stores. Unlike the more potent Delta 9 THC, which has a much more intense, buzz-inducing high, delta-8 THC is a milder and more subtle experience. It’s also less likely to cause paranoia, which can lead to anxiety and panicked thoughts. As a result, it can provide an excellent outlet for creative inspiration and help you stay focused on tasks. However, it would be best to be mindful of your chosen strain, as indica-heavy strains can make you sleepy and unmotivated. Try a tincture or vape pen with an intense Sativa strain for the best effects. Or opt for a Delta-8-THC gummy to get the same effect but in a more pleasant, digestible form.
Delta 8 THC is a cannabis cannabinoid that binds to the CB1 receptors in the body’s endocannabinoid system. This system is responsible for regulating the body’s pain signals, as well as a variety of other functions.
This can be incredibly beneficial for patients with pain conditions, such as arthritis and chronic back pain. In addition, it can also improve mood and reduce stress. Another benefit of delta 8 for pain relief is that it can provide an outlet for creativity. It can also increase the levels of dopamine and serotonin, which are natural chemicals in the brain that affect our moods and senses. This can significantly benefit people who struggle with depression and anxiety. It can also help those who suffer from PTSD or trauma. The effects of delta 8 can be a powerful tool for treating these disorders and can even help with other mental health conditions, such as schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Delta 8 THC is an increasingly popular form of cannabis available in various products, including oils, vaping pens, tinctures, edibles, and joints. Its benefits include reducing nausea, stimulating appetite, and increasing energy. While Delta-8 THC is similar to its cousin, Delta-9 THC, it produces a much milder high that doesn’t get you feeling like you’re intoxicated. It also doesn’t cause the same adverse reactions you can experience with higher doses of Delta-9 THC, such as lethargy and disorientation.
Delta 8 THC can boost your appetite, which can help you eat more food and feel full faster. But, just like with any cannabinoid, the effects can vary from person to person, so it’s best to take a little at a time and wait until you feel the full effects before consuming more. In addition, delta 8 THC can help you find creative inspiration for your projects. Whether creating a recipe, painting a picture, or writing a story, delta 8 THC can give you the extra kick needed to produce your best work. This is why so many people are turning to delta-8 THC. It’s a less potent cannabinoid that offers similar effects to delta 9 THC but with fewer side effects. In addition, delta-8 THC is a hemp-derived cannabinoid, which means it’s legal in nearly every state that allows cannabis products. This makes it an ideal option for anyone who wants to use cannabis but may be worried about the adverse side effects of delta-9 THC. It’s also an excellent choice for those seeking a non-intoxicating alternative to traditional weed.
A Comprehensive Guide to CBD Body Lotion and Its Benefits
Whether you’re looking for a CBD body lotion that supports dry skin or a topical that helps reduce discomfort from physical activity, plenty of options are available.
Choosing a product that will work best for your unique needs is essential. A high-quality CBD body lotion will be formulated with ingredients that support your specific concerns.
How Does CBD Body Lotion Work?
CBD Body Lotion binds with cannabinoid receptors in the endocannabinoid system (ECS). These specialized cells work with our body’s natural neurotransmitters to help regulate pain, inflammation, and stress.
When you experience a prick of itch or pain, your skin’s CB1 and CB2 receptors fire off signals to dampen it. They’re part of the endocannabinoid network, which also controls how we respond to exercise euphoria.
A CBD topical like this bypasses those receptors and heads straight for an intermediary that blocks pain and itch by working through agents called anandamide and 2-AG. These compounds aren’t found in the body but can be derived from hemp.
You may be curious about how does CBD body lotion work? The cream absorbs quickly into the skin and helps relieve aches and pains, thanks to its full-spectrum CBD. It can also soothe dry skin and improve circulation, which can go a long way in supporting joint mobility.
You can find many different CBD lotions out there, so choosing a product with the right amount of CBD for your needs is essential. A general rule of thumb is to look for products with at least 5 mg of CBD per mL.
To ensure the quality of your product, look for a company that sends its hemp to an independent lab to verify its potency. It’s also helpful to check that the hemp source was grown without harsh chemicals and pesticides.
What Are the Benefits of CBD Body Lotion?
CBD lotions are a great way to enjoy the benefits of the powerful hemp plant without getting high. They also work great for pain relief and to support healthy skin.
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) plays a vital role in how your skin functions. It has CB1 and CB2 receptors responsible for responding to chemical signals sent from your body. When you feel a prick of pain or an itchy itch, these receptors send alerts to a neurotransmitter intermediary to dampen those vibes.
It also helps to increase moisture levels and fight blemishes caused by clogged pores. CBD lotions contain shea butter ingredients known to be hydrating and soothing.
Many people with eczema find that CBD lotions help to soothe and ease the symptoms of their condition. They are also an excellent choice for people with dry, cracked skin.
In addition, CBD topicals can be used on overworked muscles. They have been shown to provide natural pain relief and support muscle recovery from exercise.
If you’re considering purchasing a CBD lotion, choose a product with enough CBD to yield noticeable results. Often, this means finding a topical that contains 5 mg of CBD per mL.
In addition, you should be sure to use a CBD lotion free from contaminants and heavy metals. This will ensure that you’re getting a quality product.
What Should I Look for in a CBD Body Lotion?
CBD Body Lotion is a type of product that can help relieve pain and inflammation in the skin. It is made from hemp extract and other natural ingredients that can benefit your skin.
When shopping for a CBD topical, looking for a high-quality product is essential. Reputable brands test their products in third-party labs to ensure they’re free of contaminants like heavy metals or pesticides.
It would help if you also looked for a potency suitable for your needs. Generally, average potency CBD creams have between 3 and 8 mg of CBD per recommended application. However, you can find high-potency CBD lotions with even higher concentrations.
Most CBD topical lotions and gels are infused with essential oils and botanical ingredients. If you have allergies or sensitivity to certain botanicals, it’s best to avoid them.
Additionally, you should check the ingredients list to ensure that it doesn’t contain any artificial additives or chemicals. If you have a skin condition, it’s also a good idea to talk to your doctor before using CBD.
If you’re looking for a CBD lotion that can help reduce pain, you should look for one that contains jojoba oil, menthol, and other ingredients to relieve pain. It’s also a good idea to choose a lotion that doesn’t have a strong scent, as fragranced products can be irritants.
How Do I Know if a CBD Body Lotion is Right for Me?
If you’re new to CBD, finding the right product for you can be daunting. The key is to know what you’re looking for and what will best benefit your skin.
For instance, consider a CBD body lotion that provides pain relief and muscle relaxation. However, you should note that not all products work the same for everyone, so check out what other people have to say about the benefits of a particular product before you buy it.
Another way to determine if a CBD body lotion will be the right fit for you is to read the ingredients list. This will help you see if harmful agents or compounds might irritate your skin or cause an allergic reaction.
Then, you’ll want to check the potency of the CBD. This is important because CBD doesn’t pass through the skin quickly, so it’s vital that you choose a topical product with high potency.
You should also do a spot test before applying the product on your entire body to ensure you don’t have any adverse reactions. This will help you to avoid costly mistakes and wasted money.
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