Connect with us

Business

Learn and Know IP Addresses, Subnetting,and VLSM

Published

on

IP Address

IP Address is the address assigned to the network and network equipment that uses the TCP/IP protocol. The IP address consists of 32 bits (biary digits or double numbers) binary numbers which are divided into 4 ockets (bytes) consisting of 8 bits. Each bit represents a decimal number ranging from 0 to 255.

The types of IP addresses consist of:

  1. Public IP

Highest public bit range address bit network address
class A 0 0 – 127* 8
class B 10 128 – 191 16
class C 110 192 – 223 24
class D 1110 224 – 239 28

  1. Private

This Private IP can be used freely but is not recognized on the global internet network. Because it is usually used on closed networks that are not connected to the internet, such as ATM computer networks.

10.0.0.0 – 10.255.255.255
172.16.0.0 – 172.31.255.255
192.168.0.0 – 192.168.255.255

Conclusion
1.0.0.0 – 126.0.0.0 : Class A.
127.0.0.0 : Loopback network.
128.0.0.0 – 191.255.0.0 : Class B.
192.0.0.0 – 223.255.255.0 : Class C.
224.0.0.0 = 240.0.0.0 : Class E, reserved.
3. IPv6
consists of 16 octets, for example:
A524:72D3:2C80:DD02:0029:EC7A:002B:EA73

 

Subnetting

A Network Administrator often requires network sharing from an IP Address that has been assigned by the Internet Service Provider (ISP). This is because the supply of IP addresses is currently very limited due to the proliferation of sites on the internet. The way to divide the network is called subneting and the result of subneting is called subnetwork. The steps for subnetting are as follows:

Example 2:
A company gets an IP address from an ISP 160.100.0.0/16, the company has 30 departments in total, and wants all departments to have access to the internet. Determine the network for each department?

Solution ;
1. Determine which class the IP is in? B
2. How many networks are needed?
with the formula 2n > network needed
25 > 30
3. Convert to binary

network-portion host-portion
10100000 01100100 00000000 00000000
11111111 11111111 00000000 00000000

  1. Take the host-portion bit according to the network needs, so that

network-portion host-portion
10100000 01100100 _ _ _ _ _ 000 00000000
11111111 11111111 1 1 1 1 1 000 00000000

note the third octet
_ _ _ _ _ 000
1 1 1 1 1 000

Method 1

By combining bits

00001 000 = 8
00010 000 = 16
00011 000 = 24
00100 000 = 32
00101 000 = 40
00110 000 = 48
……………
11111 000 = 248

Method 2
Reduce the subnet mask by 256

11111 000 = 248

256 – 248 = 8 then the subnetwork is a multiple of 8

No. Department of Subnetwork (255.255.248.0)
1 First 160.100.8.0
2 Second 160.100.16.0
3 Third 160.100.24.0
4 Fourth 160.100.32.0
5 Fifth 160.100.40.0
6 Sixth 160.100.48.0
7 Seventh 160.100.56.0
.. ………….
30 Thirty 160.100.248.0
Then

Network Broadcast Range-Hoat
160.100.8.0 160.100.15.255 160.100.8.1 – 160.100.15.254
160.100.16.0 160.100.23.255 160.100.16.1 – 160.100.23.254
160.100.24.0 160.100.31.255 160.100.24.1 – 160.100.31.254
160.100.32.0 160.100.39.255 160.100.31.254 160.100.32.0 160.100.39.255 160.100.32.1 – 160.100.39.254
160.100.40.0 160.100.47.255 160.100.40.1 – 160.100.47.254
160.100.48.0 160.100.55.255 160.100.48.1 – 160.100.55.254
160.100.56.0 160.100.63.255 160.100.56.1 – 160.100.63.254
160.100.64.0 160 100 .71.255 160.100.64.1 – 160.100.71.254
160.100.72.0 160.100.79.255 160.100.72.1 – 160.100.79.254
…… .. ………. ………….

160.100.248.0 160.100.255.255 160.100.248.1 – 160.100.255.254

VLSM (Variable Leg Subnet Mask)

The concept of subneting is indeed a solution in overcoming the number of IP addresses used. However, if you pay attention, there will be many subnets. More detailed explanation in the example:

Example 2:
A company that has 6 departments wants to divide its network, including:
1. Department A = 100 hosts
2. Department B = 57 hosts
3. Department C = 325 hosts
4. Department D = 9 hosts
5. Department E = 500 hosts
6. Department F = 25 hosts

IP Address given from ISP is 160.100.0.0/16

If we use ordinary subneting it will be easy to get but the results of subneting (such as example 1) will be wasted because the results of subneting are too many than the required number of hosts. Then we need VLSM calculations, namely:

  1. Sort by required hosts
    1. Department E = 500 hosts
    2. Department C = 325 hosts
    3. Department A = 100 hosts
    4. Department B = 57 hosts
    5. Department F = 25 hosts
    6. Department D = 9 hosts
  2. Convert to binary

network-portion host-portion
10100000 01100100 00000000 00000000
11111111 11111111 00000000 00000000
If the subneting is taken from the network then the VLSM is taken from the host

l For 500 hosts
network-portion host-portion
10100000 01100100 00000000 00000000
11111111 11111111 00000000 00000000

For 500 hosts, 9 bits are taken from the host-portion because
2n-2 > number of hosts

The result is 160.100.0.0/23

Network Broadcast Range-Hoat
160.100.0.0/23 160.100.0.255 160.100.0.1 – 160.100.1.254
160.100.2.0/23 160.100.2.255 160.100.2.1 – 160.100.3.254
160.100.4.0/23 160.100.4.255 160.100.4.1 – 160.100.5.254
160.100.6.0/23 160.100.6.255 160.100.6.1 – 160.100.7.254
160.100.8.0/23 160.100.8.255 160.100.8.1 – 160.100.9.254
…….. ………. ………….
160.100.254.0/23 160.100.254.255 160.100.254.1 – 160.100.255.254

l For 325 hosts we can still use a subnet of 500 hosts because it is still in arena 29 and choose an unused subnet.
l For 100 hosts use 28 > 100 and take one of the previously unused subnets.
e.g. 160.100.2.0/24

network-portion host-portion
10100000 01100100 00000010 00000000
11111111 11111111 00000010 00000000

then
Network Broadcast Range-Hoat
160.100.2.0/24 160.100.2.255 160.100.2.1 – 160.100.2.254
160.100.3.0/24 160.100.3.255 160.100.3.1 – 160.100.3.254

l For 57 hosts use 26 >57 and take one of the previously unused subnets.
e.g. 160.100.3.0/24

network-portion host-portion
10100000 01100100 00000010 00000000
11111111 11111111 00000011 00000000

then
Network Broadcast Range-Hoat
160.100.3.0/26 160.100.3.91 160.100.3.1 – 160.100.3.90
160.100.3.64/26 160.100.3.63 160.100.3.65 – 160.100.3.126
160.100.3.128/26 160.100.3.127 160.100.3.129 – 160 100. 3.190
160.100.3.192/26 160.100.3.191 160.100.3.193 – 160.100.3.254

l For 25 hosts use 25 > 25 and take one of the previously unused subnets.
e.g. 160.100.3.192/25

network-portion host-portion
10100000 01100100 00000010 00000000
11111111 11111111 00000011 00000000
then

Network Broadcast Range-Hoat
160.100.3.192/27 160.100.3.223 160.100.3.193 – 160.100.3.222
160.100.3.224/27 160.100.3.255 160.100.3.225 – 160.100.3.254

l For 9 hosts use 24 > 16 and take one of the previously unused subnets.
e.g. 160.100.3.224/25

network-portion host-portion
10100000 01100100 00000010 00000000
11111111 11111111 00000011 00000000

then
Network Broadcast Range-Hoat
160.100.3.224/28 160.100.3.239 160.100.3.225 – 160.100.3.227
160.100.3.240/28 160.100.3.255 160.100.3.241 – 160.100.3.254

 

SUBNETTING ON IP ADDRESS CLASS B

First, the subnet mask that can be used for subnetting class B is as below. I deliberately separated it into two, the left and right blocks because each has a different technique, especially for the octet that is “played” based on the subnet block. The CIDR /17 to /24 method is exactly the same as the Class C subnetting, only the subnet blocks are inserted directly into the third octet, not like Class C is “played” in the fourth octet. While the CIDR /25 to /30 (multiple) of the subnet block we “play” in the fourth octet, but after the third octet is finished, we move forward (coeunter) from 0, 1, 2, 3, and so on.

Now let’s try two questions for both subnetting techniques for Class B. We start from using a subnetmask with a CIDR of /17 to /24. Example network address 172.16.0.0/18.

Analysis: 172.16.0.0 means class B, with Subnet Mask /18 means 11111111.11111111.110000000000000 (255.255.192.0).

Calculation:

  • Number of Subnets = 2x, where x is the number of binaries 1 in the last 2 octets. So the number of subnets is 22 = 4 subnets
  • Number of Hosts per Subnet = 2y – 2, where y is the reciprocal of x i.e. the number of 0 binaries in the last 2 octets. So the number of hosts per subnet is 214 – 2 = 16,382 hosts
  • Block Subnet = 256 – 192 = 64. The next subnets are 64 + 64 = 128, and 128+64=192. So the complete subnets are 0, 64, 128, 192.
  • Valid host and broadcast addresses?

Next we try another one for Class B, especially for those using the CIDR /25 to /30 subnetmask. Example network address 172.16.0.0/25.

Analysis: 172.16.0.0 means class B, with Subnet Mask /25 means 11111111.11111111.11111111.10000000 (255.255.255.128).

Calculation:

  • Number of Subnets = 29 = 512 subnets
  • Number of Hosts per Subnet = 27 – 2 = 126 hosts
  • Subnet block = 256 – 128 = 128. So the complete is (0, 128)
  • Valid host and broadcast addresses?

SUBNETTING ON IP ADDRESS CLASS A

If it is solid and understands correctly, we will continue to Class A. The concepts are all the same. The difference is in which OCTET we play the subnet blocks. If Class C is in the 4th (last) octet, class B is in the 3rd and 4th octet (last 2 octet), if Class A is in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th octet (last 3 octet). Then the subnet masks that can be used for subnetting class A are all subnet masks from CIDR /8 to /30.

We try to practice for the network address 10.0.0.0/16.

Analysis: 10.0.0.0 means class A, with Subnet Mask /16 means 111111111.11111111.000000000000000 (255.255.0.0).

Calculation:

  • Number of Subnets = 28 = 256 subnets
  • Number of Hosts per Subnet = 216 – 2 = 65534 hosts
  • Block Subnet = 256 – 255 = 1. So the complete subnet is: 0.1,2,3,4, and so on.
  • Valid host and broadcast addresses?

Note: All subnet calculations above assume that IP Subnet-Zeroes (and IP Subnet-Ones) are calculated by default. Todd Lamle’s latest version of the book as well as CCNA after 2005 have accommodated this IP Subnet-Zeroes (and IP Subnet-Ones) problem. CCNA pre-2005 does not include it by default (though in fact we can activate it with the command ip subnet-zeroes), so maybe in some books about CCNA and CNAP test questions, you still find the formula for calculating the number of subnets = 2x – 2

 

IP Address

IP Address is the address assigned to the network and network equipment that uses the TCP / IP protocol. IP addresses consist of 32 bit binary numbers which can be written as four decimal places separated by periods such as 192.16.10.01 or for example in wxyz format. IP addresses are the most widely used protocols for forwarding (routing) information on the network.

IP addresses have classes as in table 2.4.

Table 2.4. IP address
classes Class Range Network ID Host ID Default Subnet Mask
A 1-126 w xyz 255.0.0.0
B 128-191 wx yz 255.255.0.0
C 192-223 wxy z 255.255.255.0

note: there is still class D that is rarely used, and there is IPV6 that will be used if this IPV4 is not sufficient.

For example, there is an IP 192.168.0.100, so it includes a Class C IP Address

Subnetting

If an owner of a class B IP address, for example, requires more than one network ID, he must apply to Internic to get a new IP address. However, the supply of IP addresses is very limited due to the proliferation of sites on the internet.

To overcome this, a technique emerged to multiply the network ID from an existing network. This is called subnetting, in which a portion of the host ID is sacrificed for use in creating additional network IDs.

For example, in class B, the network ID is 130.200.0.0 with a subnet mask of 255.255.224.0 where the third octet is enclosed by 224. It can be calculated using the formula 256-224=32. then the subnet groups that can be used are multiples of 32, 64, 128, 160, and 192. Thus, the IP address groups that can be used are:

130.200.32.1 to 130.200.63.254
130.200.64.1 to 130.200.95.254
130.200.96.1 to 130.200.127.254
130.200.128.1 to 130.200.159.254
130.200.160.1 to 130.200.191.254
130.200.192.1 to 130.200.223.254

Or it will be easier with a good formulation in determining the subnet and the number of hosts per subnet. The number of subnets = 2n-2, n = the number of hidden bits

Number of hosts per subnet = 2N-2, N = number of bits not hidden

For example, suppose a subnet has a network address of 193.20.32.0 with a subnet mask of 255.255.255.224. So: The
number of subnets is 6, because from the network address 193.20.32.0 by paying attention to the number from the first octet, which is 193, it can be seen that it is in class C. By observing the subnetmask 255.255.255.224 or 11111111.11111111.1111111. 11100000 can be seen that the three bits of the host ID are shrouded, so we get n = 3 and get: number of subnets = 23-2 = 6.

As for the number of hosts per subnet is 30, this is obtained from 5 bits that are not hidden, then N = 5 and will be obtained: the number of hosts per subnet = 25-2 = 30.

The hidden bit is the bit that is represented by the number 1, while the bit that is not hidden is the bit that is represented by the number 0.

 

 

Continue Reading

Business

Take the Experts at greatassignmenthelp.com for Superior Nursing Assignment Help

Published

on

Nursing assignment Help

Nursing Assignment Help services have turned out to be a standout amongst the most in-demand among global students. They require help with this subject because they are currently overburdened with task work and must prepare for various examinations. Various online task authors are working outside, but you must choose the best one.

Is it true that you are having difficulty completing your nursing assignment and require help? Do you need to score well to improve your nursing assignment grades? At that point, greatassignmenthelp.com is the place to go. Our expert essayists provide students in need with selective nursing coursework help at an affordable price. We also provide contextual analysis task writing to nursing students, as well as other types of writing such as theory writing, Coursework Writing, exposition writing, report writing services, article writing, paper research, etc.

What exactly is nursing in the Academic Writing Arena?

Nursing is thought to be superior to other professions in the service of people who are suffering from health problems. The responsibilities and difficulties of the work necessitate that nursing candidates maintain a high level of standard in their studies. Whether it is Nursing Homework, Classroom Assignments, or simply notes, you must be precise, exceptionally insightful, and maintain clarity of thought while writing them down.

What Problems Can Students Face When Writing Nursing Assignments?

Every student wants to get the highest possible score on an examination, but only a few of them do. At greatassignmenthelp.com, we take each student’s concern seriously and work tirelessly to alleviate it. The following are the written work burdens that our Nursing Assignment Help Experts have completely removed from students’ lives:

  • Complexity in establishing the task by the college’s run and direction
  • Writing the paper without making any linguistic or spelling errors
  • Obtaining reliable information or data on the subject
  • Organizing the review by the most stringent criteria
  • Making time to tackle lengthy assignments that must be completed within a specific time frame
  • Inability to grasp the subject matter

If you have been dealing with these issues as well, now is an excellent time to get rid of them. Take nursing assignment help from Ph.D. authors and give your insightful evaluations a boost. Allow us to write a nursing task for you so that you can understand what genuine skill is all about!

The Advantages of Hiring a Professional Nursing Assignment Helper

Students are unable to complete their nursing task’s written work due to time constraints. They require the assistance of skilled nursing article essayists who can manage them at each stage. Students Assignment Help’s most outstanding masters will assist them in providing outstanding nursing paper writing services. Don’t be concerned if you don’t know how to write an excellent nursing article. Purchase Nursing Assignment Help from our help experts.

Our group of master journalists can quickly provide you with a few nursing assignment cases. We will help you in writing the best and grade-winning nursing task. We will also provide you with the best task editing and modifying services. Our writers will ensure that there are no errors or omissions in your assignment and that it has an expert touch.

Continue Reading

Business

10 top reasons to use the best electronic door lock

Published

on

10 top reasons to use the best electronic door lock

Why not let the door-locking industry that safeguards all the hard-earned valuables at homes and offices get digitized when most industries already do it? Electronic door locks are the answer to the above question to leverage the advancing technology to benefit in many ways. From residential to commercial properties the need for sophisticated keys with the help of the latest technology is increasing worldwide. 

So, in this article, let us check out the increasing importance of electronic  locks and the many reasons to use them for protecting properties like homes, offices, hotels, and so forth. 

The increasing importance of electronic door lock

Until a few decades ago, locks were in geometric shapes to fix on doors to open them with keys made accordingly. And to open the locks there were only one or two keys which was difficult for homes with many members and offices for many were allowed to open it. Also, there were chances of many losing their keys and waiting for locksmiths to open them or break them to have a new lock and key. The advancing technology and others helped the thieves to make duplicate keys to enter the property illegally and steal valuable things.

Hence, the need for electronic locks increased as the living standards, and the number of businesses rose worldwide. For example, the increasing number of hotels and rooms require electronic locks to give guests a good experience. So, the importance of electronic door locks has been rising in recent years and will increase more in the future. 

Ten reasons to use the best electronic door lock

Like all locks, electronic locks also use a latch to run across the door and its frame to prevent unauthorized access. But technology has changed the way it gets controlled and the way to open it radically. Though cars used this new form of electronic door lock to prevent thieves from stealing them easily, it is now used in many homes, offices, hotels, hospitals, industries, and others for increased security and easy use. The following are a few reasons to use the electronic lock.

  1. Helps many sectors like the medical industry to keep track of the logistics and medicine supply to avoid any wrong usage that could be crucial to cause even death
  2. Supports business that wants to keep documents and another valuable information safe in lockers with many security tiers for additional protection to not let them land in the wrong hands
  3. Limits access only to authorized persons to open the electronic lock and, with frequent changes of codes, can regularize the use to avoid any unauthorized entry
  4. No more worries of losing keys or keeping them under flower vases and other places for the family members to use to make the property and its hard-earned valuables vulnerable to theft 
  5. With a battery operating system, it is easy to open the electronic lock even without a power supply with no need to wait for it
  6. A wide array of electronic locks in many forms to fit many doors from UPVC, wood, aluminum, glass and others to make it all safe.
  7. From biometrics to opening with fingerprints, RFID cards, codes with numbers or passwords, and other ways to open the electronic lock door enhance their security.
  8. Easy to make the locks smart to fix alarm system to alert of any theft, to operate from a smartphone and many more benefits
  9. Automatic locks enable employees not to ensure the locking of doors while entering offices or secure rooms.
  10. Increases the appearance of the doors and hence the property to improve its value and establish the attitude 

Award-winning Dorset from 1995 makes millions of electronic door locks from its 200 000 sq ft facility in Gurugram to supply throughout India and many countries. 

Continue Reading

Business

Know all about floor spring door, how it works, how it differs from door locks and reasons to use them

Published

on

Know all about floor spring door, how it works, how it differs from door locks and reasons to use them

Gone are the days of using door closers that open only on one side and have a protruding look. In this modern world where not only offices, malls, hospitals, and others have glass doors, homes also have it and need the best floor spring.  It gives an aesthetic look to the place and avoids scratching the door on the floor.  With more glass and heavy doors used in residential and commercial buildings, the need for floor spring door is rising.  But buying the best floor spring is essential as it has rough use for opening and heavy closing doors. 

Let us discuss floor spring doors, their differences from door closers, the many floor spring, and the noteworthy reasons to buy them from reputed companies. 

What are floor spring doors, and how does it differ from door closers?

Every house, office, industry or other property have doors worldwide and need door control products to become essential accessories in all peoples’ life.  Door closers and floor springs are the most common door control products to open and close to the original position in time and accurately.  But there are differences between door closers and floor spring door.  The noteworthy of them is door closer opens the door in one direction, whereas the floor springs open the door in two directions.  In contrast, the door closer is a hydraulic spring-like device on top of the door head to close by release and compression.  Many public places and homes use door closers, but a hydraulic door closer floor spring is ideal for glass doors with weights up to 150kg in malls, hospitals, offices, and others.

What are the door floor spring types?

Depending on the application, residential and commercial door floor spring help the door open only to an essential extent and close the door slowly.  Hence it avoids any shutting slam of the doors to cause untoward incidents in commercial buildings like hospitals, hotels, and others.  Also, depending upon the degrees of opening and closing, there are three types of door floor springs. 

  • 90-degree stop floor spring door has a unique locking mechanism to lock the door only to 90 degrees and is best for properties like schools with high traffic volume
  • 105 degrees stop floor spring door that opens up to 105 degrees for those wanting to open the doors over 90 degrees and is ideal for both commercial and residential buildings
  • Non-stop floor spring door does not stop opening or closing until reaching their minimum or maximum extension, and used in places where slow and controlled door movement is essential, like in hospitals.

Five reasons to use floor spring doors

Floor spring are hydraulic doors closed with a turbine to compress the spring, unlike the rack to rotate forward and backwards to open and close in both directions.  As a mechanical door-closing device, it finds use in glass doors with patch fitting to be ideal for malls, business parks, hospitals, etc.  The following are the reasons to buy the floor spring door

  1. Helps to open and close heavy doors even in places with high wind to avoid injury to people and damage to doors
  2. Ideal for rough use of even 150 kg doors with seamless opening and closing without scratching the floors
  3. Avoids slamming the doors as the mechanical device closes in a controlled manner with the faultless mechanism
  4. Offers an aesthetic look with no intrusions like overhead door closers or door holders and being embedded in the ground to see only the chrome steel or other finishes
  5. Easy to install in any structure and flooring type, and with many models available, they are best for single and double doors.

Dorset, for over 25 years with over 12000 touch points across India offers many more reasons to use floor spring door, like, ceiling to ground, with high quality at affordable costs. 

Continue Reading

Trending